Bonsai is the art of growing miniature trees. Bonsai is a Japanese word which means "planted in a container". But Bonsai did not originate in Japan. Its originated in China more than 2,000 years ago. Bonsai gained popularity in late 19th century only.
The major misconception surrounding is that it is a genetically dwarfed plant. In actual they are not. People doing Bonsai are trained to keep the trees smaller. The training includes regular pruning and wiring and advanced techniques such as creating deadwood. The tools used are shears, concave cutters, copper wire, root rake and rectangular pot.
Bonsai can reflect many common situations like windswept, cascade, multiple trunk and so on.