Learning in ancient civilizations is not much different than learning systems today when you get to the core subjects. Math, Writing, Language and Science were the building blocks of many ancient worlds and teaching these skills to the younger generation allowed these civilizations to continue to grow and become the societies we live in today. You can see on this visualization from the team at aaastateofplay.com 15 different ancient civilizations and how they taught their children. In Ancient Mesopotamia only the children of royalty and rich families would be taught to write.
Later on, both men and women learned to read and write and entire social classes were made up of scribes. In Ancient Egypt formal education was also reserved for boys from rich families. Starting at the age of 7, boys learned reading, writing, math and even sports and social graces. Girls were taught skills like child-rearing, cooking, baking and simple medical knowledge. In Ancient India, all were welcome to learn from gurus who imparted knowledge on religion, philosophy, literature, astrology and holistic development.